Topics: Coulometric Karl Fischer, Moisture Analysis, Moisture Testing, Karl Fischer Oven, Karl Fischer, Karl Fischer Titration, Loss-On-Drying, Moisture, interfacial tension, moisture content, moisture measurement
What seems like a million words ago, I began this journey explaining the simplest approach to measuring or determining moisture: Loss-on Drying. Little did I know how involved and esoteric it would become.
This voyage has taken me down mysterious paths through spooky theories, back to age-old chemistry concepts and into the vagaries of thermodynamics related to evaporation, vapor pressure, bound water and water activity. I have come full-circle; back to explaining Loss-on Drying -- a form of drying that I had assumed would be the simplest of all.
I thought the first four topics [evaporation, vapor pressure, bound moisture, water activity] were tough, complex, confounding and less-than-obvious. Drying -- defined as “the mass-transfer process of removing water (or other solute) by evaporation from a solid, semi solid or liquid” -- seemed easy.
As is often the case, reality makes “easy” a non-operative word. Such has turned out to be so with respect to the issue of drying.
Topics: Free Moisture, Moisture Sorption Isotherm, Moisture Oven Test, Moisture Analysis, Moisture Testing, Loss-On-Drying, Moisture
In my previous missive about Loss-On drying, we discussed Vapor Pressure -- because logically it was next. As we continue to explore moisture, we learn how vital vapor pressure is when regarding the quirky issues of free and bound water.
Topics: Evaporation, Bound Moisture, Free Moisture, Moisture Analysis, Moisture Testing, Karl Fischer Titration, Praxis Moisture Balance, Loss-On-Drying, Moisture, karl fischer moisture, water content measurement
Topics: Evaporation, Moisture Analysis, Moisture Testing, Loss-On-Drying
One quiet night, I was musing over moisture analysis and how easy it is to do using loss-on drying. Little did I know what was in store.
Topics: Evaporation, Moisture Analysis, Moisture Testing, Loss-On-Drying, Moisture, moisture balance, moisture content
We get the same two questions almost every week about the CSC Bostwick Consistometer:
1) What angle do I use to set it up?
2) How do I level the Consistometer?
Principle of Operation
The principle of the CSC Bostwick Consistometer is based on the slump cone. In this procedure, a cone is filled with the material to be tested. It is then set on a level surface with the open area facing downward. The cone is pulled away and after a fixed time, the amount that the material slumped is measured. The thicker the material, the less slumping occurs.
Topics: "Ask Art", Bostwick Consistometer, Consistency, Liquid Properties, Bostwick, consistency vs viscosity
Topics: "Ask Art", Newtonian Fluid, Measure Viscosity, Viscometers, Viscosity
Last week, as I was reflecting on a recent moisture content problem, I recalled our series “Loss-on Drying and Other Moisture Mysteries.” In that series I examined moisture chemistry in products. However, I did little to define moisture content.
Topics: Bound Moisture, Free Moisture, Moisture Analysis, Water Activity, Moisture Testing, Karl Fischer, Karl Fischer Titration, Moisture
The CSC Sieve Analyzer
The CSC Sieve Analyzer was designed to deliver a record of a sieve test results, eliminate operator error and significantly reduce the time to process and calculate these results.
Topics: Sieve Testing, Sieves, Sieving Process, Sieve Analysis
“How Many Ways are there to Measure Moisture?”
That is a recurrent question in early discussions about moisture measurement problems. Is frequently asked in connection with specific products and applications. This is a basic primer on the main techniques.
Most Used Methods to Measure Moisture Content
There are four core methods. They include the use of heat, chemicals, electrical properties and electrro magnetic phenomena.