CSC Scientific Blog

A blog about test equipment

CSC Scientific Blog

Art Gatenby

Manufacturer of test equipment. The Company specialized in the measurement of Moisture, Particle Size and Surface Tension. In these areas CSC Scientific serves the Food, Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Petroleum, Waste Water, Mining, Power and similar industries.
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Recent Posts

Coulometric Or Volumetric Karl Fischer -- Which Should I Use?

Posted by Art Gatenby on Nov 13, 2019 5:00:00 PM

As usual when we pose a question, like:

Should you use Coulometric or Volumetric Karl Fischer to measure moisture in your product?

We often get a the reaction, “So Who Cares?” We'll try to answer both questions.

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Topics: Coulometric Karl Fischer, Volumetric Karl Fischer, Moisture Analysis, Moisture Testing, Karl Fischer, Karl Fischer Titration

What is Moisture Content?

Posted by Art Gatenby on Nov 4, 2019 3:00:00 AM

Last week, as I was reflecting on a recent moisture content problem, I recalled our series “Loss-on Drying and Other Moisture Mysteries.” In that series I examined moisture chemistry in products. However, I did little to define moisture content.

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Topics: Bound Moisture, Free Moisture, Moisture Analysis, Water Activity, Moisture Testing, Karl Fischer, Karl Fischer Titration, Moisture

Sieve Test Results Simplified

Posted by Art Gatenby on Oct 28, 2019 12:00:00 PM

The CSC Sieve Analyzer

The CSC Sieve Analyzer was designed to deliver a record of a sieve test results, eliminate operator error and significantly reduce the time to process and calculate these results.

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Topics: Sieve Testing, Sieves, Sieving Process, Sieve Analysis

“How Many Ways to Measure Moisture?”

Posted by Art Gatenby on Sep 6, 2019 10:15:00 AM

“How Many Ways are there to Measure Moisture?” 

That is a recurrent question in early discussions about moisture measurement problems. Is frequently asked in connection with specific products and applications. This is a basic primer on the main techniques.

Most Used Methods to Measure Moisture Content

There are four core methods.  They include the use of heat, chemicals, electrical properties and electrro magnetic phenomena.

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Topics: Moisture

Instrument Accuracy?  Is it only an illusion?

Posted by Art Gatenby on Aug 28, 2019 12:05:00 PM

Regularly I’m asked the question; “How accurate is this moisture balance?”

The questioner asks for the answer in terms of percent (%) moisture. When I answer “it depends”, I always get the unspoken response, “Why did I ask this stupid idiot?

Absolute Measurement

When you ask about the accuracy of something like weight or temperature the answers are straight forward and relate to the instruments' precision. For example 25 grams or 50 degrees plus or minus (+/-) 0.1 gram or 1/2 degree.  

Percent is Relative

When you ask the question of how accurate is my percentage reading, the answer becomes complicated. It’s complicated because percentage (%) is a relative term. For example, the answer for the result of a Loss on Drying (LOD) moisture test, is based on the size of the sample you use.

Using the example of a LOD moisture test we can understand the concept. The result of this type of test is calculated by subtracting the weight of the sample at the end of the test from the weight of the sample at the beginning of the test. This difference is divided by the initial weight of the sample. This procedure produces a % moisture result.

Sample Size

In the following analysis, the implication s of sample size and instrument precision will be illustrated. This will be based on a sample that has 23.5% moisture and an electronic LOD moisture balance that has a sensitivity of 0.001 grams and repeatability of ± .005 grams.

Sample Analysis

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Topics: Moisture Analysis, Moisture Testing, CSC Digital Moisture Balance, Loss-On-Drying, Moisture, moisture balance, instrument accuracy

Particle Size Analysis— Why?  [Garden Stones to Micron Dust]

Posted by Art Gatenby on Jun 27, 2019 8:40:00 AM

In past ramblings on particle size analysis we have touched on shakers, ASTM standards, sieve checking, separating small particles, inhibitors like static charges and how to get sieve tests done.  A couple of things that we rarely addressed.

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Topics: Sieve Shakers, Particle Size Analysis, Sieve Testing, Quiet sieve shakers, micron particles, nanometer particles, laser diffraction, segmentation

Surface Tension - Rings, Bubbles, Drops, and Plates

Posted by Art Gatenby on Feb 19, 2019 8:00:00 AM

The definition of Liquid Surface Tension is simple.  

It's the force that keeps a liquid from flying off into space.

However, the measurement of surface tension can take many forms, which can be confusing. In an attempt to get some clarity, we have articulated two principle measurement concepts in this article: drop-based measurement and force-based measurement.

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Topics: Automatic Digital Tensiometer, Automatic Surface Tension Measurment, Surface Tension Measurement, Surface Tension, Interfacial Tensiometer, interfacial tension, tensiometers, du Nouy tensiometer, surface tension instruments, surface tension analysis

How Density Testing Got Easy

Posted by Art Gatenby on Sep 25, 2018 3:20:03 PM

The first recorded application of density measurement was for fraud detection. The density measurement concept then expanded to encompass determination of material composition and assessment of product quality.

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Topics: density, oscillating u-tube, liquid density, hydrometer

Surface Tension by duNouy Rings or Wilhelmy Plates – Which to Choose?

Posted by Art Gatenby on Jul 16, 2018 5:34:18 PM

When tempted to think I know all there is about surface tension measurement, further information brings me back to earth. I’m conversant with the principal applications: surfactant analysis, plating, detecting contaminants, development of ink and the like. I have assisted customers to set up and calibrate duNouy Ring tensiometers for most applications -- all the while taking for granted that the Ring technique was the method of choice -- with only infrequent questions arising about Wilhelmy Plate tensiometers.

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Topics: Wilhelmy Plates, duNouy Rings, Tensiometer, Surface Tension, interfacial surface tension, Liquid Properties, surface tension instruments, surface tension analysis, Digital tensiometer, automatic Tensiometer

Do You Know If Your Test Sieves Are Doing the Job?

Posted by Art Gatenby on Jul 12, 2018 8:00:00 AM

Do You Re-Certify? Compare with a Master Stack? Check with Calibration Samples?

What Does Recertification Give?

The ASTM E-11 committee has done a great job of establishing three levels of testing. These levels show the probability of a sieve’s mesh to be within the permissible variations. These variations relate to the size of openings in wire-cloth used for test sieves.

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Topics: Sieve Shakers, Mid-Point Sieves, ASTM, Particle Size Analysis, Sieve Calibration, Sieve Certification, Sieve Testing, Sieving Process, Quiet sieve shakers, RoTap, sieving, test sieve equipment, sieve mesh

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