The Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration was designed for measuring low moisture content. Typically the Coulometric method is used for samples containing less than 1% moisture and for sample sizes less than 200 milliliters (ml).
CSC Scientific offers the Aquapal Series of coulometric titrators. The original Aquapal was introduced in approximately 1990. In the intervening period there have been three significant upgrades. The current model is the Aquapal III.
This instrument has a sensitivity of one tenth of a microgram (0.1µg) of water. The Aquapal III provides moisture measurements in terms of % moisture, parts per million (PPM), micrograms (µg) of water and a number of relationships of water to the sample size.
The instrument includes:
The on-board printer displays these results, and when combined with the test memory feature can provide a statistical analysis over several tests of factors such as mean values, coefficient of variation and standard deviation.
The Aquapal III is widely used in the areas of transformer oil monitoring, crude and lube oil analysis and many applications in the solvent, pharmaceutical and chemicals industries.