Karl Fischer Method of Moisture Detection

The Karl Fischer Method

Karl Fisher Titration is a technique for the determination of moisture content. The technique was developed by a chemist named Karl Fischer. It is based on a reagent which reacts with water and converts the water into a non-conductive chemical. Karl Fisher provides for the specific detection of water content in a product.

There are two methods used to perform the Karl Fischer titration test.

One is known as Volumetric Karl FischerThe other method is known as Coulometric Karl Fischer.

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Coulometric Karl Fischer

In this approach, the reagent and solvent are combined in the titration cell. When a sample is introduced into the titration cell and dissolved, reagent is released by the induction of an electrical current. The amount of current required to convert the water is the determinant of the amount of moisture. A Coulometric Karl Fischer instrument is often referred to as a coulometer.

The advantage of the Coulometric Karl Fischer method is the capability to accurately measure small amounts of moisture. Sensitivity of these instruments is as low as 0.1 microgram (µg) of water. This method is normally used for moisture content below 1% or for samples where the moisture is less than 200 micrograms.

Aquapal III Coulometric Titrator

The total package for simple coulometric titration.

  • Aquapal_2Range: 1 ppm to 100%
  • Speed: 2 mg/minute
  • Sensitivity: 0.1 ug
  • Precision: 0.5% at 1mg
  • Light weight of 15 lbs. or 6.8kg
  • Built in printer with standard paper backs up test with hard copy results.
  • Single reagent or dual reagent systems available
Aquapal Coulometric Titrator

MKC-710 Series Coulometric Titrators

Benchtop coulometric titration at any level.

  • MKC-710SMMeasuring Range: Water Content/Bromine index: 10ug to 300mg (depends on reagent)
  • Measuring cell: 2 component or 1 component
  • Precision: Relative standard deviation : less than 0.3% (n=10)
  • Key Operation:  Touch Panel / Sheet key:  M&S model / B model
  •  Data Storage:  500 samples / 100 samples:  M&S model / B model
MKC-710 Series Coulometric Titrators

Volumetric Karl Fischer

With this method, the moisture determination is based on the amount, or volume, of reagent used to convert the water. In the Volumetric Method, samples are dissolved in a solvent before the titration begins. A reagent is added until the water is removed.

The volumetric method is ideal when working with samples containing higher levels of moisture (generally over 1% or 2%) but also when samples may contain ketones and or aldehydes. 

MKV-710 Series Volumetric Titrators

Volumetric titration configured to your needs.

  • Measuring Range: Water Content 0.1 to 500mgH2O, Concentration 10ppm to 100%H2O
  • Burette Precision: Volume 10mL burette, discharge +-0.015mL, Repeatability +-0.005mL
  • Required solvent: 30 to 100mL if using standard S-type titration vessel
  • Data storage: 500 samples for model M/S and 100 samples for model B
  • Ambient conditions: Temperature 5 to 35 degree C, 85% RH or below
MKV-710 Series Volumetric Titrators

Karl Fischer Oven-Evaporator

KF Oven ADP611For samples that cannot be dissolved in approved solvents and for samples that only release moisture at high temperatures, a Karl Fischer Oven-Evaporator is is used. The evaporator removes the water, which is moved to the titration cell by a dry, inert gas and the titration is carried out.

See the Karl Fischer Evaporator Oven

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